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 Rifles, Semi Automatic and Automatic weapons

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PostSubject: Rifles, Semi Automatic and Automatic weapons   27th June 2010, 2:01 am

Le Enfield 303


The Lee-Enfield bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle was the main firearm used by the British Empire during the first half of the 20th century and throughout most of its turbulent history.
It was the British Army's standard rifle from its official adoption in 1895 until 1957.
And was a redesign of the Lee-Metford which had been adopted by the British Army in 1888. And became the standard issued weapon to rifle companies of the British Army and other Commonwealth nations in both the First and Second World Wars. Although it was officially replaced in the UK with the L1A1 SLR in 1957. However it remained in widespread British service until the early 1960s and the 7.62 mm L42 sniper version remained in service until the 1990s. And is still in service with the Indian Police, making it the longest-serving military bolt-action rifle still in official service. The total production of all Lee-Enfield’s is estimated at over 17 million rifles.
The Lee-Enfield takes its name from the designer of the rifle's bolt system James Paris Lee, and the factory in which it was designed the Royal Small Arms Factory in Enfield England. Although in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada the rifle became known simply as the "303.
The 303’s fast-operating Lee bolt-action and a large magazine capacity enabled a well-trained rifleman to perform the "Mad minute" firing 20 to 30 aimed rounds in 60 seconds, making the Lee-Enfield the fastest military bolt-action rifle of the day. The current world record for aimed bolt-action fire was set in 1914 by a musketry instructor in the British Army—Sergeant Instructor Snoxall—who placed 38 rounds into a 12 inch wide target at 300 yards (270 m) in one minute.
During the 1960s, the Ministry of Defence converted a number of Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifles to 7.62x51mm NATO and listed it as the L8 series. After replacing the Barrel and introducing a 10 round magazine. As part of a program to retain the Lee-Enfield as a reserve weapon. The Lee-Enfield No. 4 series rifles that were converted to 7.62 mm NATO were re-designated as the L8 series.
The result of trials conducted on the L8 series rifles were mixed, and the Ministry of Defence decided not to convert their existing stocks of Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifles to 7.62 mm NATO. Despite their decision not to continue conversions they learned from the results of the L8 test program and used them in successfully converting their remaining stock of No. 4 (T) sniper rifles to 7.62 mm NATO which led to the creation of the L42A1 series sniper rifles.




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PostSubject: Re: Rifles, Semi Automatic and Automatic weapons   27th June 2010, 2:02 am

.The L1A1 Self Loading Rifle (SLR 7.62)




In the early 50’s it was decided that the trust worthy Le Enfield 303 had passed its prime and needed to be replaced with a more modern robust semi automatic rifle. Based on a German design that had been adopted and modified by the Belgium FN company. The British Army developed its own model of the FN FAL, and called the L1A1 Self Loading Rifle (SLR). It was manufactured by the Royal Small Arms Factory Enfield and the Royal Ordnance Factory. Unlike other models used by different countries the British version was fitted with a lug so a bayonet and a rifle grenade launcher could be used.
The L1A1 SLR served the Australian, Canadian and British Forces around the world with its main usage in the Falklands. Although it was in service from 1954 until 1985 it generally looked and became an accessory much like a ladies hand bag, but with a lethal result if put to the test. I don’t recall many complaints about the SLR other than it gave a few gas problems and needed the regulator to be constantly adjusted and left handed models were virtually none existent. This created problems for those like myself who would have preferred the cartridge to expel to the left instead of in front of my face. Unlike the European versions which were made in metric, the British SLR was made using Imperial measurements and included several changes from the original Belgian FN FAL. Including being Semi Automatic other changes included the introduction of a fold-flat cocking handle, an enclosed flash suppressor and a folding rear sight. Minor changes included sand-clearing modifications to the body, breechblock and the breechblock carrier, a gas regulator, an integral fold-away trigger guard and pistol grip, strengthened butt-stock and an enlarged fire selector and magazine catch along with a modified take-down release lever to prevent unintended activation and top-cover retainer tabs to prevent forward movement.
The SLR was produced so the fire selector featured two settings safety and semi-automatic, rather than the original Belgian FN which featured automatic fire. The magazine from the 7.62 mm used by the L4 light machine gun was able to fit the L1A1 SLR. But had to be modified for the upward feed.


The L1A1 SLR was replaced in 1987 by the introduction of the bullpup L85A1, firing the 5.56 mm cartridge. Between 1987 and 1991, L1A1 rifles were phased out either being destroyed or sold on the black market.


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PostSubject: Re: Rifles, Semi Automatic and Automatic weapons   27th June 2010, 2:03 am

Rifle 5.56mm L85 (SA80)




The Bullpup design creatively decreases total weapon length compared with standard assault rifles. It is comfortable to use not only on the battlefield, but also in areas with limited space.

In 1951 the British officially adopted the EM-2 bullpup design as the "Rifle, Automatic, No.9 Mk.1". But the American's insisted using a 7.62x51 cartridge which was supported by Sir Winston Churchill. Causing the EM-2 which used 7 mm rounds to be shelved and the Belgian FN FAL rifle adopted.
It was expected that because the American's were pushing the 7.62 that they would also adopt the FAL but that was, at that time under trials as the T48, However they selected the M14 which initially gave problems in Vietnam and is said to be responsible for numerous American casualties due causing blockages and misfires because of the stck ammunition being used.

EM-2 bullpup design as the "Rifle, Automatic, No.9 Mk.1".


In the 1970s, the British Army started looking again at a new assault rifle with the prospect of using lighter rounds than the then standard issued 7.62. Their research suggested that a slimmer bullet of the same general weight as the M16's 5.56x45 mm (.223") would produce the same ability to be fired in fully automatic mode. This resulted in the .190-inch (4.85 mm) round fitted in "necked down" but otherwise standard 5.5a 6 mm cartridges from the M16.
The Royal Small Arms Factory then using the round as a base, developed a rifle to fire the new round. There achievements were met with the "L64/65 Individual Weapon" which was outwardly similar to the earlier EM-2, but adopted a firing mechanism very similar to Armalite's latest AR-18 design. The first examples were available in 1972, and By 1976, NATO was ready to standardize on a small calibre round. The testing of various rounds on a head-to-head comparison started in1977. Although the British round out-performed the standard American 5.56 mm, Fabrique Nationale's entry based on the 5.56 mm, the "SS-109" performed just as well as the British cartridge and in the end was selected largely due to its similarity with existing American ammunition.

The L64/65 was later developed into the SA80 family of weapons which entered service with the UK forces in the 80's when Britain started a programme titled "Small Arms for the 1980s" or SA80. Which created the L85 design using the 5.56 x 45 mm NATO cartridge. Not only did it replace the L1A1 (SLR) but it also replaced the Bren Gun. Compared to the SLR the gas operated action has a short stroke gas piston, located above the barrel with its own return spring. The gas system has a three position gas regulator, one position for a normal firing, second for a firing in adverse conditions, and the third for launching rifle grenades.
In 1997 improvements were made because of constant complaints by the troops. The main problems were difficult maintenance and low reliability. Improvements were made during 2000 - 2002 when 200,000 of the existing 320,000 L85A1 Automatic Rifles were upgraded. Improvements were made to the cocking handle, firing pin, gas parts and magazines. A very small number of L85A2's were designed for left hand users for their tactical advantage in situations such as moving clockwise around a building.

The improved rifle was renamed the L85A2. It is regarded by many as the most reliable and accurate standard rifle in service today. During the 2003 International shooting meet at Bisley, the British Army team won after firing over 62,000 rounds with no stoppages. During active service, the A2 can be fitted with a 40 mm grenade launcher, a light attachment and a laser red-dot sighting device. Sighting systems include the SUSAT; with 4x magnification and a Trilux gas filled conical reticule or Iron Sight; consisting of a foresight and rear sight with adjustable rear sight for low light
conditions.

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PostSubject: Re: Rifles, Semi Automatic and Automatic weapons   27th June 2010, 1:26 pm

Le Enfielf L42-6 Sniper Rifle


During both World Wars and the Korean War, a number of Lee-Enfield rifles were modified for use as sniper rifles. The Australian Army also modified 1,612 Lithgow SMLE No1 Mk III rifles by adding a heavy target barrel, cheek-piece, and a World War One era Pattern 1918 telescope, creating the SMLE No1 Mk III* (HT). (HT standing for "Heavy Barrel, Telescopic Sight), which saw service in the Second World War, Korea, and Malaya and was used for Sniper Training through to the late 1970s.
During the Second World War, standard No. 4 rifles, selected for their accuracy during factory tests, were modified by the addition of a wooden cheek-piece, and telescopic sight mounts designed to accept a No. 32 3.5x telescopic sight. This particular sight progressed through three marks with the Mk 1 introduced in 1942, the Mk 2 in 1943 and finally the Mk 3 in 1944. Many Mk.3s and Mk.2/1s were later modified for use with the 7.62 mm NATO L42A1 Sniper Rifle. They were known by the designation Telescope Straight, Sighting L1A1.
Holland and Holland, the famous British sporting gun manufacturers, converted the majority of No 4 Mk I (T) sniper rifles, with the rest converted by BSA and, in Canada, Long Branch arsenal. These rifles were extensively employed in various conflicts until the late 1960s, when the British military switched over to the 7.62x51 NATO round in the 1950s, many of the No 4 Mk I (T) sniper rifles were converted to the new calibre and designated L42A1. The L42A1 sniper rifle continued as the British Army's standard sniper weapon until the mid 1980s, being replaced by Accuracy Internat
ional's L96.



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PostSubject: Re: Rifles, Semi Automatic and Automatic weapons   27th June 2010, 1:27 pm

L96 + L115 Sniper Rifles

The L96 - super magnum is a precision rifle or sniper rifle produced by the British firm Accuracy International Who is a specialist British firearms manufacturer based in Portsmouth, Hampshire. They are best known for producing the Accuracy International Arctic Warfare series of precision sniper rifles which were designed by Olympic marksman Malcolm Cooper.
This weapon was adopted in to British Service in the early 1980s as a replacement for the ageing Lee-Enfield-derived L42 and designated the L96 it was also known as the Accuracy International PM rifle.
It has since been adopted by a number of countries with derivatives chambered for various calibres including the .338 Lapua Magnum, known in British Army service as the L115 Long Range Rifle (LRR). The Swedish PSG-90, L96A1, and very successful Accuracy International Arctic Warfare series were developed from the L96’s heritage.

In terms of intelligence-gathering, target identification and eliminating high value targets
A sniper fulfills a vital and enduring role on the battlefield,
Unveiled recently was the L115A3 rifle, which became part of the Sniper System Improvement Programme (SSIP), It is a larger calibre weapon which provides state-of-the-art telescopic day and night all-weather sights, increasing a sniper's effective range considerably.
The first batch of SSIP systems was deployed to Afghanistan with members of 16 Air Assault Brigade in May 2008 with subsequent deliveries being made to training units across the UK.
Designed to achieve a first-round hit at 600 metres and harassing fire out to 1,100 metres, Accuracy International's L96 sniper rifle has also been upgraded with a new 3-12x50 sight and spotting scope.
The L115A3 long range rifle fires an 8.58mm bullet which is heavier than the 7.62mm round of the L96 and less likely to be deflected over extremely long ranges.
This year has also seen the introduction of a calibre, acclaimed to be the worlds the best? First designed in 1983/4 The .338 Lapua Magnum which was developed by Research Armament Industries of America and Lapua of Finland.

Other elements of the Sniper System Improvement Programme include night sights, spotting scopes, laser range finders and tripods.
Calibre .338 (8.58x70mm) (L115 / AWM), 7,62x51mm NATO (L96 / AW)
Weight 6.8 kg,
Length 1,300 mm,
Muzzle velocity 936 m/s,
Feed 5-round box and
Effective range 1,100 m plus



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PostSubject: Re: Rifles, Semi Automatic and Automatic weapons   27th June 2010, 1:27 pm

7.62 HK 417 with scope and bipod

The HK417 is a battle rifle designed and manufactured in Germany by Heckler & Koch. It is a gas-operated, selective fire rifle with a rotating bolt and is essentially an enlarged HK416. Chambered for the 7.62x51mm NATO round, it is intended for use as a designated marksman rifle, and in other roles where the greater penetrative power and range of the 7.62mm round are required.
The British Royal Marines have purchased a number of HK417 to use on a trial with
3 Commando Brigade as designated marksman rifles. It is also reported to have been used by United Kingdom Special Forces.in Iraq and Afghanistan.
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